PDA

View Full Version : 45/90 built entirly on a lathe



radkins
08-27-2011, 08:27 PM
My scratch-built 45/90 HighWall project is about ready for the bluing tanks (need advice desperately on that one!) and I thought I would put up a couple of pics. It has taken well over a year but that includes a recuperation period from a broken knee, kinda hard to get around in the shop on crutches! :mad: Anyway it is about completed and lacking a mill it was done entirely on my lathe using a home built (more like cobbled) milling attachment and a couple of more home made attachments that sort of defy description but they worked. I built every piece in the gun including all the internals and springs except for the screws and the brass buttplate that I stole from my muzzle loader, well that and the barrel which was converted to an octagon from a 1.270" round blank from Green Mountain. This was my first attempt at anything anywhere near this kind of complexity and I sort of learned as I went but you guys were a heck of a lot of help and I really do appreciate that. I did some major redesigning of the hammer/sear mechanism and trigger assembly to eliminate the, to me anyway, unsightly screws and pins in the receiver sides and this modification not only gives a much cleaner exterior appearance but allows for very simple trigger adjustment.



http://i258.photobucket.com/albums/hh269/dwmiracle/1314486030.jpg


http://i258.photobucket.com/albums/hh269/dwmiracle/1314485488.jpg


http://i258.photobucket.com/albums/hh269/dwmiracle/1314485884.jpg

chipmaker4130
08-27-2011, 08:32 PM
Beautiful! I don't know anything about gun-making, does the barrel blank come bored, chambered and rifled?

Gordon

radkins
08-27-2011, 08:39 PM
The barrel is just a 34" long 1.270" diameter blank that is bored and rifled but that's all, it's way oversized as-is and is not chambered. I turned the barrel down and milled the flats on it to produce a tapered octagon that's 1.190 at the breech and 1.050 at the muzzle.

Tony Ennis
08-27-2011, 08:44 PM
Wholly impressive.

JCHannum
08-27-2011, 09:01 PM
Very very nice. An admirable undertaking under any circumstances, but even more so considering using only a lathe.

I would appreciate details of the internals, particularly how you either eliminated the lower tang or how you attach it without the screws.

radkins
08-27-2011, 09:21 PM
The lower tang is still there but instead of drilling through the sides of the receiver I built the tang with small flanges on either side and milled recesses in the back of the receiver to match. This is a "Thick-Side" version and as such has enough metal (however I think even the "Thin-Side" version would have the same at that point) to accept these flanges and small screws which are then hidden by the stock along with the rest of the internal trigger assembly. As for the sear I made a carrier with rails similar to the front of the lower tang and then milled slots inside the receiver to fit these rails, again similar to the slots for the lower tang. The carrier and sear assembly slides into the receiver along with the lower tang/trigger assembly and is then held in place by a set screw, because of the design the set screw can be loosened and the assembly moved to adjust the trigger but, by design, the assembly can not move enough to cause a dangerous trigger setting even if the set screw was accidentally left out.

Al Messer
08-27-2011, 09:46 PM
Beautiful job! Excellent workmanship! Congratulations!

Al

Willy
08-27-2011, 10:02 PM
What can I say that hasn't already been said?
Congratulations, it absolutely gorgeous. You're right, the receiver looks very clean and elegant without the screws and pins.
Very challenging project for one done only on the lathe, this takes a lot of ingenuity and planning.
I know it will look "right" after the bluing process, but it looks pretty damn nice in the white too!

tdmidget
08-27-2011, 10:31 PM
Nice piece of work. The receiver should be color case hardened, not blued.

JCHannum
08-27-2011, 10:41 PM
That is a unique method of installing the tang & trigger group, and makes for a very clean action. John M. would be proud of you.

The choice of CCH versus blue on the receiver will depend on the material. I believe radkins has mentioned using 4140, if so, the receiver should be blued. Winchester furnished them either way, so either is correct. I believe Winchester used rust bluing which produces a much richer blue.

Next question is how did you full length octagon the barrel in the lathe?

Willy
08-27-2011, 10:43 PM
Nice piece of work. The receiver should be color case hardened, not blued.

X2
Good point!

radkins
08-27-2011, 10:46 PM
Nice piece of work. The receiver should be color case hardened, not blued.


I really would like to color case harden, definitely my first choice if I had that option, but the receiver is 4140 HT and Color Case is not recommended. I started with a 3" x 1 -1/2" x 8" block of 4140 HT and milled the receiver, breechblock, firing pin and extractor out of it, the rest of the internals are case hardened 1026. I only discovered after I had started that color case was not a good idea for the 4140 and that 8620 would have been a better choice, at least for appearance.

HWooldridge
08-27-2011, 10:46 PM
Beautiful work. Have you considered browning the major parts?

Even with that size barrel, she's gonna push back a bit when you touch off! I assume you are going to shoot black and a long bullet?

madman
08-27-2011, 10:54 PM
Nice Wood ..

tdmidget
08-27-2011, 11:23 PM
Beautiful work. Have you considered browning the major parts?

Even with that size barrel, she's gonna push back a bit when you touch off! I assume you are going to shoot black and a long bullet?

I think "browning" is a myth. I have several old recipes for it and what it boils down to is rust. The Brown Bess musket was painted brown. So I guess one can blue steel or park it out in the rain.:D

tdmidget
08-27-2011, 11:24 PM
Curious- has anyone actually tried color casing 4140?

radkins
08-27-2011, 11:25 PM
Double post, not sure how the dickens I did that!

radkins
08-27-2011, 11:32 PM
Next question is how did you full length octagon the barrel in the lathe?


Well I was afraid someone was going to ask about that, that's one of those attachments that is going to be a bit hard to describe but I will try. What I did was build what might be described as a "tool post mill", nothing fancy just a jack-shaft mounted at the center line in place of the tool post with an adapter for a 1/2" 4 flute end mill and powered by a 3/4 HP motor. The barrel was mounted between centers and used a degree wheel on the backing plate for indexing. I then off-set the tailstock for the taper and took light cuts the full length rotating the barrel and cutting the opposite side from the last cut. Not surprisingly that long hollow shaft chattered unmanageably even with light cuts no matter what speed and feed rate I used, this was not unexpected and my plan was to support the barrel somehow but I got another idea that solved the problem nicely. I plugged one end of the barrel with a balsa wood plug and filled the bore with some no.11 lead shot I had then plugged the other end before mounting on the lathe, by experimenting with end mill speeds and feed rates the chatter problem was solved. It was quite slow due to the number of passes required and I was actually surprised it worked but it did work quite well.

This is the only pic I have of the goofy contraption and it was taken when I first experimented with it, the two flute end mill was changed to a four flute and there WAS a guard over the belts when that thing was running but it had been removed there while changing speeds.

http://i258.photobucket.com/albums/hh269/dwmiracle/1314497608.jpg


That is not the actual barrel in that pic, that is a piece of mild steel bar I used to test before attempting to do something like that to my barrel.

Bob Ford
08-27-2011, 11:52 PM
Radkins,

Very good work and you should be proud of it. This is a great example of what can be done if a person will think. I think a plumb brown would make this look like your rifle and not a copy. After all it is not a browning, it is something similar that you made.

Bob

radkins
08-28-2011, 12:11 AM
After all it is not a browning,



I could not agree more and I jokingly refer to it as a highwallish rifle and I would never call it a Browning or Winchester since it actually is only similar and few if any parts would interchange with an actual Winchester or Browning design. I am definitely open to suggestions for the finish, I really like a glossy blue but then a soft blue/black is nice also but now you guys have me wondering what it would look like in brown. I have a friend with double barrel shotgun with a factory rust blue that is an absolutely beautiful finish but I have been told that 4140 does not rust blue well so I am not sure about using that. Whatever I decide to do I would like to do it myself and that about rules out conventional hot blue unless I change my mind and just send it out.

chriskat
08-28-2011, 12:18 AM
Absolutely outstanding. Did you buy plans somewhere or is it your own design? I'd love to have an idea how it is built. I've always wanted a rifle like that.

Jeff

Willy
08-28-2011, 12:19 AM
Wow. After seeing your setup for milling the octagon barrel I'm sure most would say it'll never work....too much flex.
But you made it work...and nicely too.
Anybody can cut a check for a mill, not everyone can make silk purse out of a sow's ear.:D
Way to go...
Necessity is the mother of invention.

Bob Ford
08-28-2011, 12:51 AM
Radkins,

Not great pictures, but this rifle is browned and the receiver is 4140 ph.
http://bbs.homeshopmachinist.net/showthread.php?t=33676&page=2

Bob

radkins
08-28-2011, 01:12 AM
Absolutely outstanding. Did you buy plans somewhere or is it your own design? I'd love to have an idea how it is built. I've always wanted a rifle like that.Jeff


I had a set of plans but they were so filled with errors and omissions that they were guaranteed to lead to failure. I used pics from the 'net, some photos I got of a disassembled Highwall and notes of the critical dimensions but the design is really quite simple and fairly easy to figure out after looking at one disassembled. Now after having said what I did about the so-called plans that I had there are a couple of sellers on E-Bay that have, what I have been told recently, really good prints that are very accurate and complete for about $25. The guy I talked to about these E-bay prints was really impressed with them and was certain that an exact replica could be built from these, he said they were very complete and of really good quality.

radkins
08-28-2011, 01:18 AM
Not great pictures, but this rifle is browned and the receiver is 4140 ph.
http://bbs.homeshopmachinist.net/showthread.php?t=33676&page=2

Bob


Hey that looks great, not what I imagined so I think before I decide anything I will try to find a rifle with a browned finish and check it out. It would be neat to have something a bit different.

HWooldridge
08-28-2011, 01:22 AM
I think "browning" is a myth. I have several old recipes for it and what it boils down to is rust. The Brown Bess musket was painted brown. So I guess one can blue steel or park it out in the rain.:D

Well, duh - of course it's rust but it's controlled. I've browned several items (both guns and other steel pieces) with Birchwood Casey's "Plum Brown" and with home made formulas. It's fairly easy to get nice dark color, almost black (blued?) if you work at it. In fact, I seem to remember bluing was originally discovered by boiling a browned piece.

I bought a Rossi model 92 that someone had rubbed with steel wool until it was completely bright (he was trying for a "distressed" look) - and I browned the entire gun with the BC product. Now, it looks like a 100 year old Winchester - so used properly, browning can generate a unique and beautiful finish.

tdmidget
08-28-2011, 01:26 AM
My brother has an old Stevens model 94A that has the receiver a similar color except richer. It is the result of bluing a previously case hardened surface.

tdmidget
08-28-2011, 01:30 AM
Well, duh - of course it's rust but it's controlled. I've browned several items (both guns and other steel pieces) with Birchwood Casey's "Plum Brown" and with home made formulas. It's fairly easy to get nice dark color, almost black (blued?) if you work at it. In fact, I seem to remember bluing was originally discovered by boiling a browned piece.

Had no idea that Casey's was in business back then. Can you give one example of a firearm that was originally "browned"?

Bob Ford
08-28-2011, 01:49 AM
tdmidget,

Rust blue or brown is a comparatively slow process. You coat the metal with a solution that rusts the metal. Then you leave it sit for hours or days. Steel wool the crust off and coat again. When it reaches the color texture you want you stop the rusting. If you want it to be blue you boil the metal until it turns blue. For production guns it is cheaper to hot dip blue. So most guns unless custom are blued. AND no Radkins is not a old firearm that needs to follow tradition.

Bob

HWooldridge
08-28-2011, 02:20 AM
Had no idea that Casey's was in business back then. Can you give one example of a firearm that was originally "browned"?

I wasn't alive 300 years ago so I can't provide an example that left its maker originally "browned" but I find it interesting that you seem to be implying every single firearm produced prior to the age of "bluing" was either left in the white or painted brown. Perhaps I misunderstood?

Frank46
08-28-2011, 03:08 AM
What you could is get the action and barrel bead blasted and then blued. Sort of looks like a satin blue. Not as shiny as a standard blue job. Just a suggestion.
Frank

JCHannum
08-28-2011, 09:18 AM
I like the lathe milling attachment. I have ended up with half octagon, half round barrels on my previous builds because my mill will not handle a full length barrel. My next build will be a full length tapered octagon on a Low Wall, but I was able to locate a donor Ballard barrel which I will reline.

Your Green Mountain barrel is 4140 as is the receiver. Both will rust blue. Rust blue and browning are both done the same way, controlled rusting, preferrably in a cabinet to provide the needed humidity and heat. There are several different formulas for speeding the process, but slow rusting is also used. The parts are allowed to achieve a fine coat of rust which is then carded off with steel wool or a very fine wire brush. The rusting cycle is repeated until the desired depth of color is obtained. The parts are oiled if browning is the desired color, boiled in water if blue is desired. It results in a deep blue black that is the mark if a fine custom gun.

The reason 4140 should not be color cased using the pack method is not that it will not work, but that the added carbon and the sudden quenching will potentially damage the steel. It will certainly change the 4140 prehard temper. Mike Hunter has commented on this several times and will not CCH 4140 for that reason. You might check with Doug Turnbull, he has several methods of CCH, and might be able to provide one that will not create a potential hazardous situation.

And yes, browning was a common finish on just about all firearms up until the mid 1800's or later.

HWooldridge
08-28-2011, 10:09 AM
Hey that looks great, not what I imagined so I think before I decide anything I will try to find a rifle with a browned finish and check it out. It would be neat to have something a bit different.

Please post some more pics when it's complete and let us know how it shoots.

japcas
08-28-2011, 10:43 AM
Radkins, I've read through all the posts so forgive me if I may have overlooked the answer to this question, did you do the wood work yourself also, or did you buy it? The gun looks great by the way and I'm sure it will look good with whatever finish you decide to put on it. Just make sure and post pics when you get it completed, we would all really love to see it. Also, let us know how it shoots.

tdmidget
08-28-2011, 10:59 AM
I wasn't alive 300 years ago so I can't provide an example that left its maker originally "browned" but I find it interesting that you seem to be implying every single firearm produced prior to the age of "bluing" was either left in the white or painted brown. Perhaps I misunderstood?

Not every one but most were in the white. If you research you will find that virtually all Civil War weapons were in the white and soldiers were expected to keep them that way, usually by rubbing with sand. In the Infantry Museum in Oklahoma City (well worth seeing) there is an extensive collection which includes a Civil War rifle, I don't remember the model, which was never issued. It is in the white and the display says that it is the original , as issued, finish.
I suspect that "browning" is more popular today than it was 150 years ago.

vpt
08-28-2011, 11:20 AM
Excellent work! Love the milling attachment, much like the unimat I made fit my lathe to build my tool post. Keep it around, that thing comes in very very handy!

If ever I get a bigger lathe I want to get a bigger headstock and motor for the "milling attachment" because the unimat is, well, very low powered.


I would love to build a gun of any type. I always thought a barrel with a spiral on the outside would look cool. Something that looks like twisted bar for stair railings.

Again very nice work! Gun looks absolutely great!

My unimat set up on my little atlas.

http://img535.imageshack.us/img535/1456/gear002.jpg

radkins
08-28-2011, 11:22 AM
did you do the wood work yourself also, or did you buy it?




I did the wood work myself, it's black walnut that came from a tree that was cut about a mile from my house that was about to be cut up for fire wood. This was a very large tree but had grown beside a road and no sawmill would touch it because it had a wire fence attached to it, the guy gave it to me and was happy to be rid of it-not nearly as happy as I was to have it however! :D The figure in the stock is not very apparent in the pics but I chose a piece that is figured in the butt area but has straight grain in the grip for strength, I really wish now I had used a piece with more figure in the full length on the stock and I plan to do just that this winter.

japcas
08-28-2011, 11:25 AM
Thanks Radkins, that answered my question. You did a great job on the woodwork too.

radkins
08-28-2011, 11:39 AM
the milling attachment, much like the unimat I made fit my lathe to build my tool post. Keep it around, that thing comes in very very handy!




VPT, the "tool post mill" was very handy and I also used it on the receiver to contour the top where the barrel attaches. Because this is parallel to the bore I mounted the receiver with the bore centered and rotated it while I used the "mill" to shave the receiver top to it's rounded shape. Unfortunately that trick only worked for that area because it was the only place contoured parallel to the bore. The rest of the contours were done freehand using files and stones with lines scribed in lay-out fluid as guides, the shaping with files was not nearly as hard or slow as it might sound and was actually a very enjoyable part of this project.

chriskat
08-28-2011, 05:59 PM
Another question if I could. How did you cut the square hole for the breech block?

radkins
08-28-2011, 08:15 PM
I started with a drilled hole that I then shaped with a long 1/4" carbide end mill to the point that is in the photo below, the corners were then carefully filed to the finished shape. I used files/stones and marking fluid to closely fit the finished to size breech block to the receiver, this resulted in a smoothly sliding block with no noticeable play and the marking fluid insured I was getting full contact of the vertical surfaces and not just riding on high spots. Actually once the hole was milled out to the point of just needing the corners finished the rest was not hard to do at all since the surfaces were very flat it was just a matter of filing/honing the necessary clearance.


http://i258.photobucket.com/albums/hh269/dwmiracle/IMG_3724.jpg


http://i258.photobucket.com/albums/hh269/dwmiracle/IMG_3717.jpg

HWooldridge
08-28-2011, 08:26 PM
Not every one but most were in the white. If you research you will find that virtually all Civil War weapons were in the white and soldiers were expected to keep them that way, usually by rubbing with sand. In the Infantry Museum in Oklahoma City (well worth seeing) there is an extensive collection which includes a Civil War rifle, I don't remember the model, which was never issued. It is in the white and the display says that it is the original , as issued, finish.
I suspect that "browning" is more popular today than it was 150 years ago.

I will readily concede that some military weapons were left bright - the practice precedes Napoleon and actually goes back to plate armor worn prior to common use of firearms. Armies of the period didn't care about glare; I'd wager it was part of the scare tactics prior to battle. However, sporting arms were typically browned, likely to reduce glare. I have an old book titled "Antique Guns" by Bowman and Carey (copyright 1953) which has a wide variety of photos of firearms in various museums. None of the Pennsylvania and Kentucky longrifles or English shotguns are in the white - even guns dating from 1650; the Swiss and German Jaeger rifles are also browned.

So, I'd agree with your theory with regard to military muskets - but not much else.

chriskat
08-28-2011, 09:46 PM
Thanks, and once again, absoluetly beautiful.

radkins
08-28-2011, 09:56 PM
I don't have a close-up of the fitted breech block but honestly it was lot easier to do than I at first thought it would be. I worried about how to do this and even asked here about maybe using a broach but in the end I took the suggestion to just file and stone it and I am really glad I did! This is as close as I have to a pic of the finished fit but for whatever reason (the camera angle or maybe lighting?) makes the block look as if it is protruding much higher that it actually does.

http://i258.photobucket.com/albums/hh269/dwmiracle/1314489384.jpg

CCWKen
08-29-2011, 03:25 AM
Man! That is one beautiful piece of ART! I commend your talents as a craftsman in metal as well as wood. Thanks for sharing.

black powder
08-29-2011, 06:55 PM
If I may , their is an interesting book- Firearms Bluing and BROWNING by R.H.ANGIER- it will take you through the procedure for both bluing and browning.Your rifle is a beautiful piece work .

lazlo
08-29-2011, 06:56 PM
It's been said already, but beautiful! :)

radkins
08-29-2011, 07:30 PM
If I may , their is an interesting book- Firearms Bluing and BROWNING by R.H.ANGIER- it will take you through the procedure for both bluing and browning.


When I read your reply I did a quick search and Amazon has the soft back for less than $20, I will get that on the way PDQ!


Thanks, and thanks to everyone for the complements, this has been an interesting and very challenging project for me and I was not at all sure if I would be able to complete it. A couple of times I very nearly made serious mistakes that were prevented by asking for advice here, you guys always had the answers and I really do appreciate that!

Chris S.
08-29-2011, 08:10 PM
What can I say that hasn't already been said?


Well, I don't think this has been said.... I'm at the Viagra age and noth'n much is gonna happen without it... until now! :D

That's exquisite Firearm Porn! ;) You must post the procedure of the hex barrel milling on the lathe... Really!

Chris

jep24601
06-21-2014, 11:25 AM
If you research you will find that virtually all Civil War weapons were in the white and soldiers were expected to keep them that way, usually by rubbing with sand.
Actually, the Enfield musket, one of the principal arms of both sides was blued. What you say is correct though. The sand rubbing took care of that.

RWO
06-21-2014, 02:51 PM
4140 does not rust blue well because there is too much chrome to get the depth of rust you need for a deep colored and durable blue finish. The initial color looks OK but it does not wear well. Turnbull Restorations does color 4140 with great results. My theory is that they do the usual heat and quench routine but never heat beyond 1000 deg F. This is about where 4140 tempers to achieve RC36-38, the normal hardness for gun receivers. As long as this temp is not exceeded, nothing happens to the steel's original hardness. Case colors are simply the usual temper colors generated in a random manner during the quench. The colors are all formed at about 700 deg F and below, so heating to 1000 deg F or so should be more than sufficient. No doubt there is more to it, but since Turnbull's process is secret, we will likely never know for sure.

RWO

Paul Alciatore
06-23-2014, 02:22 AM
Resurrected old thread, but absolutely beautiful work. I just love looking at it.

Kiwi
06-23-2014, 07:09 AM
Truly inspirational thank you for sharing. the lathe mill attachment ingenious, lift it up the radius of a grind stone and that of the barrel and polish off the mill marks perhaps

radkins
06-23-2014, 10:51 AM
I built a follow-up to that rifle in a scaled down version, this one is a 22 magnum and is MUCH lighter. I posted a thread on the new rifle a month or so ago while it was still in the white except for the barrel, unfortunately I have been tied up on other projects here on the farm and it's still not blued. It was built using the same method as the larger one and I incorporated the same mods that I did to that one to hide the screws/pins from appearing on the exterior receiver but on this rifle I tried to produce a more realistic 1885 Winchester appearance even with it being quite a bit smaller than an original.

http://i258.photobucket.com/albums/hh269/dwmiracle/bhw3_zps1e94bd31.jpg (http://s258.photobucket.com/user/dwmiracle/media/bhw3_zps1e94bd31.jpg.html)

http://i258.photobucket.com/albums/hh269/dwmiracle/bhw5_zps129263fa.jpg (http://s258.photobucket.com/user/dwmiracle/media/bhw5_zps129263fa.jpg.html)

Bob Ford
06-23-2014, 03:37 PM
Radkins,

I really like what you have done. The straight grip on the stock adds to the look. Always liked the exposed hammer and the lack of screws and pins appearing all over the action. Good lines and scale. I might have to build a small action.

Bob

radkins
06-23-2014, 09:18 PM
I have been thinking about how to design a unique single shot falling block but of course it would not be truly unique, it would be a variation of John Browning's ingenious design. Basically it would be more of a style change but I have been giving a lot of thought to the sear, firing pin and trigger group and thinking about how it could maybe be built as a slide-in assembly instead of the sear being mounted independently of the trigger group. I would also like to change the receiver appearance enough so that it would be more of a custom but then the original Winchester shape would be hard to improve on, the rifle I envision would be another octagon barrel 45-90 but would incorporate some of the features I thought about while building the other one such as the newer model 1885 forearm mount. I'm just in the planing stage as of now and probably won't start on it until late this Summer but it should be a fun Winter project!

JCHannum
06-23-2014, 10:35 PM
While not a scratch build such as yours, I built a high wall from the Frontier Armory castings several years ago. From that I understood some of the wisdom behind the Browning design. The relationship between the trigger and knock off and the sear and hammer makes it very forgiving for dimensional variances in manufacturing and assembly.

For inspiration, you might try to locate a copy of the Frank deHaas book, Single Shot Actions, Their Design and Construction. It covers many different types of actions and details several unique designs that could be food for thought. It is difficult to locate and rather high priced when found, but you might be able to get it on interlibrary loan.

radkins
06-24-2014, 03:57 PM
As it was originally designed the sear, knock-off and trigger assembly is indeed a very forgiving design that is virtually trouble free (as a sidenote it was designed this way by Winchester engineers and is more complex than Browning's even simpler design) and the only reason I changed it was to eliminate those pin ends from appearing in the receiver. This was of course nothing more than a matter of taste and involved quite a bit of work to accomplish next to nothing but I reasoned that since this would be a once-in-a-lifetime project I would do whatever it took to build it the way I wanted it, after all it's just a hobby. Of course it turns out that I enjoyed that project so much I decided to do the other one and now I am looking at a third one, kind of habit forming I suppose!

Something I didn't mention about the little rifle is that I built it to be a switch-barrel like I discussed back when it was still in the planning stages. The barrel is attached by a wedge/lug design that I shamelessly stole from Ruger's 1022 and sometime soon I hope to also fit a 17HMR barrel to that receiver, it's a bit more complicated to change than most true switch barrel designs but still less than a five minute job that could easily be done at the range or even in the field while hunting. The tools need are a screw driver and two small Allen wrenches which I intend to consolidate into one tool to be carried with the barrels/receiver in the rifle case. Switching simply involves removing the forearm the two Allen head capscrews holding the lever spring then two more holding the retaining wedge, the barrel then slips out and replacement is simply the reverse.

That book is on my "to get" list and has been for some time, I missed a couple of auctions on E-Bay but eventually one will come my way.