Forrst, I concur. This whole welding 1144 drives me nuts. With .44% Carbon it can be direct hardened. Would anybody weld 4140 and not expect problems. As to finish problems with CRS. On the lathe the tools need enough tool nose radius and positive top, side, back and nose clearance angles. If you are using chip breakers make sure that they do NOT direct the chip so that it drags back on the surface of the work behind the tool. This is a situation where a nice tight curling or spiraled chip is desirable. In the mill sharp cutters used at moderate speed (100 t0 125 SFM is plenty). In the shaper same as the lathe but even more top rake. For coolant, oils and soluable oil based coolants work best IMO. The more expensive Tap Magic, Rapid Tap etc save for tapped and reamed holes.
Just my .02$
Amatuers cut gear teeth one at a time. Professionals generate them via gear hobbers and shapers