I was lucky enough when I got my 24-151 ( the newer version of the same grinder) that I got the toolmaker attachment with centers, the Unihead and the Univise. I even got the center-mist attachment. I too would love to know if there was any more documentation that went with any of this. I think I read somewhere a reference to an instruction sheet for the center-mist coolant unit, which to me implies that there might have been some more info available.
However, I am not holding much hope about the usefulness of any more documentation. The 7-pager you referenced on the 24-150 is a good example....not a lot there. Of course, I don't expect a treatise on cutter grinding any more than I would expect an "everything you need to know about woodworking" book to come with a table saw.
Still, I would love to find an actual instruction manual for my newer model grinder. What I do have that has pictures and part numbers is a .pdf copy of the "catalog" that is just a few pages showing the various bits and pieces that go with it. Its no instruction manual however.