Sure, you can index with a rotary table. It gets a little tedious because you need to figure out the angular value for each index position which, if you're doing a 48-tooth gear or something, can get extensive. But you can do it with a computer program pretty easily these days, so it's really not that big a deal.
There may even be tables in Machinery's Handbook with it all figured out, I'm not sure.
Unless you have a horizontal/vertical rotary table, you may not be able to set up the work on the axis you really want, but even that problem may be solvable with a big angle plate.
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