That means the rod end of the cylinder. There's always less force in that direction than the piston side without the rod. So, on a double acting cylinder (pressure port on both ends) there's more push available than pull.
Originally Posted by rebel54
In your application make sure to distinguish between pounds force and "pounds per square inch". The fluid has psi which is converted to pounds of force by the size of the piston. If the piston rod is pressing against a workpiece, you'll again have a pounds force to pound-per-square-inch factor but it won't be material unless you're denting the workpiece or some such.
Having cylinders on both sides of the part doesn't increase the force, that's still limited by the air pressure/cylinder size relationship. If you had a smaller cylinder on one side it would simply be pushed back by the larger one. To increase the pounds force on one side, you'll need to either increase the air pressure or increase the size of the piston. Having two pistons on one side counts, since your effective piston area is the sum of those two.
"In theory there’s no difference between theory and practice. In practice there’s a lot of difference.” Yogi Berra