PDF files are tricky. I have seen ones where everything appears normal on the screen but when I try to print them I get a bunch of garbage characters where letters and number should be. So, nothing is guaranteed.
If it really is text that you are seeing and not an image of text, then you should be able to outline (select) it and use Control-C to copy it to the clipboard. Then open Word or your favorite word processor or plain text processor (WordPad, NotePad, etc.) and use Control-V to paste it there. Now you can change the type size, font, etc. And print it as you like.
If it is an image file, you may be able to copy it using Control-C and then paste it in a program like Paint or Paint.net and manipulate (resize) and print it there.
Make it fit.
You can't win and there is a penalty for trying!