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  • Patina Basics Safe Color Solutions for Metalsmiths

    Patina Basics
    Safe color Solutions for Metalsmiths
    Tim McCreight
    copyright © 2010
    Brynmorgen Press
    Run time 80 minutes
    http://www.brynmorgen .com

    Let me say right out and up front that I'm a big fan of Tim's books and dvd's. He has some of the best books on the subjects of metalsmithing. That said this DVD is going to be another cornerstone in metalsmithing. Whether you are into jewelry, small sculpture, large sculpture or other metal folding, shaping work that requires patina's. Or just if you are interested in patina's or patination of your work. This is a great beginners,basic teaching aid.

    It is just what it says on the title and sub title. This uses readily available kitchen chemicals, and household products. He does digress into a few store bought liquid solutions such as gun blue and Jax brand green patina liquid.

    What is great about the DVD are the high production standards, as far as sound, and picture quality are. You can see everything, hear everything and there are plenty of closeups of the finished patinas. Along with the formulas of the patina mixes on screen.

    Divided into chapters from what equipment you need, safety and the basic use of the materials. To the assorted patina's he covers along with cold, hot, brush, spray, fume and buried application. To wax and other sealers and protectors (Rattle can type)

    It is in his laid back, relaxed style he covers some things that could be called patination outside the box. When he is talking about the use of resists, and coffee grounds in a buried patina.

    There are printable pages of instructions (PDF) format along with the video content.

    Make no mistake this isn't a chemistry course, or a course in using the more exotic chemicals to create repeatable patina's on hundreds of duplicate pieces. It is a basic, small scale patina's that can be scaled up for larger work. Using safe (which is a realitive term when talking about vinegar, table salt, ammonia and copper sulphate) solutions found around the home.

    If you are unsure about some of the other materials for patina's for silver,brass, copper, and bronze. With a little practice and experimentation. I think you will be happy with this DVD and the results.

    It is available at Amazon or through the link on their web site.*
    Last edited by PTSideshow; 09-08-2013, 06:23 AM.
    Been there, probably broke it, doing that!
    I am not a lawyer, and never played one on TV!
    All the usual and standard disclaimers apply. Do not try this at home, use only as directed, No warranties express or implied, for the intended use or the suggested uses, Wear safety glasses, closed course, professionals only


    • Health Hazards Manual for Artist

      Health Hazards Manual for Artist
      Michael McCann Ph.D CIH
      4th edition
      ISBN 1-55821-306-6
      Lyons & Burford Publishers
      Copyright ©1994
      Paperback, 132 pages
      Line drawings

      Just to add something to keep the emails and PM's down. If you are still breathing and you do anything around the house or in other working setting including office work you are exposed to more things that are bad for you! A little common sense can go a long way. Whether you consider yourself an artist or not!

      With the constant ever changing research being done into the health effects of the materials around us, both in and out of the shop. Due to the sort and long term effects on our bodies.

      It is becoming a must for the artist/fabricator/Shop person to stay on top of it. This book sort of fell into my hands when I was carrying a box of books I purchased. After reading some of it. This should become mandatory reading .

      All these years Turpentine has been label as safe, how many of us didn’t give a second thought about using it to wash or body parts off after an oil paint session. Having been in sign painting back in the day when One Shot lead based paint was the weapon of choice. As the lead was the reason for the great coverage, in the beginning of the hazard awaking the MEK’s Methyl Ethyl Ketone and its cousins were the ones that we were warned against.

      Not that they can’t cause problems, but now the threshold limit valves for exposure for MEK is 200ppm (parts per million) compared to Turpentine 20ppm

      The Relative Toxicity Rating for MEK is skin contact MODERATE, inhalation: MODERATE, ingestion MODERATE.

      The Relative Toxicity Rating for TURPENTINE is skin contact: HIGH, inhalation: HIGH, ingestion: HIGH.

      Who would have thought that! What was also interesting is that ACETONE TLV 500ppm skin and inhalation: both SLIGHT, ingestion: Moderate.

      The book is divided into three sections: Part One is: How Art Material Affect You. This covers the Basic problem, Risk factors, Effects on the bodies systems, Solvents and aerosol sprays and Acids and alkalis.

      The second part is: Hazards of various media With any number of them that are of interest to the metal worker, home shop person. From painting, stone, clay, and wax, wood, plastics welding metal working, jewelry, enameling stained glass, glassblowing to children and art materials.

      The third part is: Safety in the Studio, covering Materials, Safer materials Processes, Ventilation, Storage Handling, Housekeeping, Fire prevention and the Personal protective equipment and how to get help. What you need to tell the doctors if you are having problems. And they can’t find a cause, since most doctors aren’t use to treating material related illnesses. It is a good Idea for you to keep your own MSDS of what you use so if you are not able to communicate your family can provide info.

      There are newer editions out of this book. So when looking for a used copy get latest you can.
      Last edited by PTSideshow; 08-02-2013, 10:27 AM.
      Been there, probably broke it, doing that!
      I am not a lawyer, and never played one on TV!
      All the usual and standard disclaimers apply. Do not try this at home, use only as directed, No warranties express or implied, for the intended use or the suggested uses, Wear safety glasses, closed course, professionals only


      • Artist Beware

        Don't let the title fool you as the materials are the same used in every shop!
        Artist Beware
        Michael McCann PhD CIH
        The Lyons Press
        Copyright © 2005
        ISBN 1-59228-592-9
        Trade paperback
        591 pages
        B&W photo’s line drawings and information sheets

        This is his expanded version of his previous book which could be called Artist Beware Lite ! This one too has had a number of editions. And is currently being used as higher education text book. For artists and art teachers, as we are more ever moving to a more litigious society.

        This is divided into two parts: The first is Chemical and Physical Hazards, basically the first chapters discuss what and how the materials you use can hurt you and what bodily systems they affect and how.

        After the basics it is again split into Gases and Liquids section and then Dusts and Fumes. It is set up with the most important information only. Which covers TOXICITY RATINGS, with the further explanations of the dosage, oral skin and inhalation. ACCIH(American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists) EXPOSURE LIMITS, (threshold limit values), NIOSH exposure limits STL (Short Term Exposure Limits), OSHA exposure PEL’S(Permissible Exposure Limits)

        Since as with most things that would cost industry money, there is still some controversy about the role that industry played in setting them. So all three are included if the last two are lower than the TLV.

        One interesting thing you may want to consider if you are in an art studio work place. Don’t call OHSA as it doesn’t do studio’s or art work places. And since the industrial limits are higher than for studio’s they may just give the work place no violations! Which means they then could state that OHSA has given them a clean bill of health.

        Given are the chemical names, common names if so are used, flash point, Specific hazards along with general hazards and general uses for the class of material. If there is need for further detailed explanation it is also given.

        The next 5 chapters deal with Safety in the work place or studio. general safety, ventilation lots of great info most don’t know or things that we don’t consider. Using flammable and toxic art material safety.

        And the personal protective equipment, and some of it will surprise you as it has to do with things that aren’t really discussed much. Noise in the studio/shop two examples are hammering on metal @120 decibels, and portable grinding 110 decibels.
        Another item that isn’t talked about much is, Infrared Radiation emitted by heated objects. Whether somebody is at forge side glass blowing or hot work kilns, foundry. It has been known as potters cataracts, or any other names down through the years.

        Head gear for bump injuries, proper clothing, the proper shoes and then if you use ear plugs and do welding or anything were sparks are generated they should non flammable as not to cause more damage to the ear.

        It also Goes into ergonomics, tool and machine safety then finishing up with the physical hazards. And finishing up with in case of illness or injury who do you call. As most regular GP’s will not have a clue about what to do or which test to call for. Things most of us have never given thought to or about.

        The second part again covers the: Assorted art and Craft Techniques from painting, drawing, sculpture, wood, metal, smithing, glass, enameling and jewelry among others and finishing out with children and art materials.

        Each craft is then listed out as to hazards and then precautions, and if need be broken down further to separate subject matter in the craft.

        It has a great Bibliography and good index. Again check for the latest edition, as the information changes as new research comes to light.
        Last edited by PTSideshow; 08-02-2013, 10:24 AM.
        Been there, probably broke it, doing that!
        I am not a lawyer, and never played one on TV!
        All the usual and standard disclaimers apply. Do not try this at home, use only as directed, No warranties express or implied, for the intended use or the suggested uses, Wear safety glasses, closed course, professionals only


        • The Artist's Conplete Health and Safety Guide (I will add shop too!)

          The Artist’s complete Health and Safety Guide
          Monona Rossol
          Allworth Press
          Copyright ©2001
          ISBN 1-58115-204-3
          Trade paperback
          405 pages
          Charts, Tables and few Line Drawings

          This one is by the God Mother of arts, crafts and theater safety, she was ACTS founder. It is to bad that due to funding and grants cuts due to the economy the website has been shut down. As it was a great resource for any one in any of the areas it covered.

          The book is sectioned into 4 main headings: Part I The Regulated Art World
          Chapter 1 ; Health and Safety Laws
          Chapter 2 ; Health Hazards and the Body
          Chapter 3 ; Chemical Health Hazards and their Control
          Chapter 4 ; Physical Hazards and their Control
          Chapter 5 ; Identifying Hazardous Materials
          Chapter 6 ; General Precautions
          Chapter 7 ; Ventilation
          Chapter 8 ; Respiratory Protection

          They are mostly self descriptive as titles all but the most important one Chapter 5 As there are a lot of things and phrases and buzz words that manufactures put on labels to confuse or obfuscate the public or consumer.

          Just because it is a natural product doesn’t mean it is safe after all asbestos, silica and dioxins are natural products. Also the phrases that are used

          USE WITH ADEQUATE VENTILATION doesn’t mean use with a window or door open. It means that some toxic component becomes airborne during the products use. Ventilation required must be sufficient to keep the airborne substance below levels that are acceptable for industrial air quality.

          This last one in the US and Canada is a great example the test last 2 weeks and if half the animals are alive after it. So following the above standards Powdered asbestos could be labeled nontoxic on the basis of this test. As all the animals will appear healthy after the two week tests, because cancer and asbestosis takes years to develop.

          CITRUS OIL used in all manner of cleaners including had cleaners is made from citrus rinds. It contains D-LIMONENE which is natures pesticide, It kills flies so efficiently that it is registered with the EPA as an active ingredient in commercial pesticides. Add that to the fact that the citrus oil is contaminated with other pesticides from commercial fruit production

          The American Industrial Hygiene Association set workplace standards for d-limonene that is more restrictive then that for turpentine, toluene and most other common solvents!

          The chapter on ventilation and respiratory protection are filled with things you mom and employers never told you about the fine print in the descriptions of the two subjects.

          Part II: Artist’s Raw Materials
          Chapter 9: Solvents
          Chapter 10: Pigments and Dyes
          Chapter 11: Metals and Metal Compounds
          Chapter 12: Minerals
          Chapter 13: Plastics and Adhesives

          Covers the basics on the above headings and general information. In chapter 11 for metals, it covers alloys, skin contact, corrosion products, dusts and powders, fumes, inhalation of metal particles, metal containing gases, metal compounds, other compounds. Exposure standards, toxicology of metals and compounds Threshold limit values and more in depth coverage of skin, nervous system, respiratory system, and reproductive effects.

          It has a table that covers local and systemic hazards on the materials, and the TLV weighted for exposure for 8 hour day. Also list common chemical mixes and alloys that can have an effect.

          PART III: Precautions for individual Media

          Chapters 14 through 29 are paper making, glass, metal surface treatments, painting, welding, woodworking casting and smithing are just a few of them listed. Now they cover other hazards also, noise, radiation from light both UV and infrared, and bodily injury.

          A lot of things people in the studio and shop sometimes take for granted. Or the always I’m only doing it for a minute, OUCH! Hey call 911!

          PART: IV The Next Generation

          Chapter : 30 Teaching Art
          Chapter : 31 Reproductive Risks

          Most will not be teaching in the general sense, but enough have younger kids, or grand kids that they enjoy showing and getting involved in shop/studio work. If you are he man or women and still consider yourself bullet proof. At least take a moment and think of the youngins!

          It finishes up with sources, government agencies, standard organizations, commercial sources and reference list, a glossary and index.
          If you are only going to get one book as a shop/studio source then I will say that this one has it all. It truly lives up to its name.
          Last edited by PTSideshow; 08-02-2013, 10:17 AM.
          Been there, probably broke it, doing that!
          I am not a lawyer, and never played one on TV!
          All the usual and standard disclaimers apply. Do not try this at home, use only as directed, No warranties express or implied, for the intended use or the suggested uses, Wear safety glasses, closed course, professionals only


          • Sculpture with a Torch

            Sculpture with a Torch
            Minnesota Archive editions
            John Rood
            University of Minnesota Press
            ISBN 978-0816604913
            Trade paper back, 108 pages B&W photos nicely done for being reproductions electronically
            This edition is a print on demand,from Amazon books

            This is a great idea by the U of Minnesota press, of making their previously published and out of print titles back to life with out a lot of copies sitting around in storage waiting to be sold. Being a confirmed “Bookie” This a much better deal than e books, which always reminds me of the old song money for nothing. As you only get electronic image of the book that can disappear in a power surge. Besides this type of subject matter isn't available on the yet. Enough of the opining!

            This was done at the time the expansion of metalwork tools and equipment, for use in the sculpture arts was in full bloom. He was one who embraced the equipment and medium of the additive and constructive sculpture. This was a time that gas welding in the form of Oxygen/Acetylene technique was still something that was done at the factory or down at the garage!

            He covers it as a technique for the construction of small sketches/models of large architectural pieces or stand alone smaller ones. To adding surface treatments and textures, accents to the work.

            The equipment of the time, and has a novel replacement for the flint striker which he dislikes. A candle stub in a tin can for a constant source of flame for lighting the torch.

            Gives an overview of welding and brazing with the torch, and some basic instructions. It is by no means an instructional book on welding, but one on the effective and creative use of an industrial process.

            He then shows a step-by-step of a small scale steel welded sculpture, He covers steel, aluminum, and bronzes along with using a steel armature and covering it in brazing rod for the bronze cast look. He does mention a very brief explanation of arc welding and it uses. He also touches on finishing and gives a couple of generic formulas for patinas for the bronze/brass work

            He then gives an account on how he did a large scale wall hanging piece at the Wisconsin State College, at River Falls called the Falcon. It is done with photo's of both the front side and the back side, plus the installation.

            A chapter on using this technique for making sketches of large works to sell them, Plus the added benefit of having model of your finished work, that is if you can get it back from them!

            Mr. Rood was a prolific sculptor, in the chapter called Some Possibilities, he displays a wide variety of his work. He then finishes up the book with a chapter of others recent welded sculpture. Again a wide variety of styles and work. It finishes with some General Safety Rules, Bibliography, Index.

            The black and white photo's have been cleaned up and adjusted before reprinting, something that is often forgotten in the reprint world.*
            Last edited by PTSideshow; 08-08-2013, 06:07 AM.
            Been there, probably broke it, doing that!
            I am not a lawyer, and never played one on TV!
            All the usual and standard disclaimers apply. Do not try this at home, use only as directed, No warranties express or implied, for the intended use or the suggested uses, Wear safety glasses, closed course, professionals only


            • Elementary Wrought Iron

              Elementary Wrought Iron
              J.W. Bollinger
              Originally published by The Bruce Publishing Co.
              Original Copyright©1930,Wireless Press
              Reprint by Lindsay Publications
              ISBN 1-55918-210-5
              Trade paperback , 136 pages

              This is an elementary book on smithing, and general decorative metal arts work. Most likely for the junior and high school industrial arts classes. So it is written in clear and concise terms, with very good descriptions of the equipment, tools and materials and procedures.

              It is divided into 3 sections, the first Materials and Tools with the anvil and forge as a sub section. It isn't an in depth section or explanations of any of it. Just the basics of the materials used and the main tools.

              The next section is headed Operations, which covers 26 operations that are used in the art of decorative metal arts work. Along with being used in general blacksmithing.

              It covers building a coal fire for coke, then cutting, tapering, upsetting, flaring, twisting, making bends over an anvil. Shaping an eye, shaping a ring, making bends with a bending fork, Bending with the use of bending forks and bending scrolls over scroll forms.

              Moves on to raising, rosettes and leaf ornaments. The use of pipe collars was interesting, as a replacement for making a dished wooden block.

              The final two sections of the operation part is drilling, riveting, threading, fastening with clips, (forge) brazing and (forge)welding. Then hardening and tempering tool steel and a short section on finishing.

              The project section is the last part of the book filled with clear drawings with squares as reference for the curved pieces, it is divide into Tools, Articles of furniture and Miscellaneous, Andirons and Fireplace accessories, Candlesticks, Lamps and some fill ins small quickie projects (watch charms or key chain charms).

              From plain items to items that have rosettes and flourishes, the lamp section covers some basic wiring of the lamps, for the most part it is still the same as then with the possibility of the polarized plugs on the ends.*

              Nation builder books Is one source in addition to Lindsay books
              Last edited by PTSideshow; 10-15-2013, 09:32 AM.
              Been there, probably broke it, doing that!
              I am not a lawyer, and never played one on TV!
              All the usual and standard disclaimers apply. Do not try this at home, use only as directed, No warranties express or implied, for the intended use or the suggested uses, Wear safety glasses, closed course, professionals only


              • Hand Forging and Wrouight-Iron Ornamental work 1911

                Hand Forging and Wrought-Iron Ornamental work (1911)
                Thomas F. Googerty
                Popular Mechanics Co Publishers
                copyright ©1911
                Reprint copyright ©2005
                Lindsay Publications
                ISBN 1-55918-336-5
                Trade paperback, 196 pages, 122 B&W line drawings

                This is an oldie, but it is a real goodie written in a clear style with a lot of drawings that show the procedures or operations or the finished product. What is different about this one is in the introduction he talks about the spirit of decoration, history of ornamental work,Correct principles in the design, the decorative value of the curve and lines, Inspiration of art and nature, and the differences of mere ornament and not decoration.

                This is one area that is often forgotten as people either write a fact how to book with little or no thought given to the reasoning behind the way things were done, to achieve the beautiful iron work of the past. Rather than some of what is that and why did they do it of today.

                The great ones today spend almost as much time thinking of and designing the concept of the piece. He does cover things other authors take for granted that the person reading the book has a skill set to do the work. One example is the layout of a grille, that has a repeat design on each side of the diagonals.

                In the Equipment chapter, the forge, fire, heating, materials used in forging ( this is mostly a historical section now as the assorted steel have replaced almost all wrought iron ). Which he does cover the basic's on steel and tool steel used in the making of tools. And finally hammers and anvil along with a start on the proper way to draw the iron.

                Working at the forge covers all of the basic processes used to make items. Upsetting, Ramming, Punching, Bending, solid forgings and shrinking Bands.

                Another nice section in this book is the coverage of the assorted types of welding and how they are done is covered in two chapters. Scarf, Lap, T with round iron, T, corner and cross with flat or square stock, jump, butt, rings round and flat, chain, finishing with brazing.

                Twisting, Spirals, Bulbs, Balls and Cubes, banding and riveting. Then on to Scroll work , Giving a brief description of how the drawings are made. Methods of shaping and working the scrolls. Grilles and grille work and welded scroll work.

                Box forgings, which is the bases for items, along with styles of bases and a couple of methods to make them.

                Embossing, Forms in Relief, Leafs and other Ornamental Forms, Rosettes, Bulbs The Acanthus-Leaf design and raised forms and a short description on the proper method of hot oil finishing.

                Drawer-pulls, Hinges, Window fasteners, Scalloping, Door-Keeps, Other-keeps, Hinges and some examples. Door plates, Drawings and dimensions, how to make patterns, practical examples.

                Finishing up with the more involved items lamps of all kinds and styles. Showing the entire method from construction from drawing the pattern to the final fitting. Various forms are illustrated.

                Whether for the beginner, or the practitioner that would like to expand their skill sets .

                You can get it from Nation builder books, or Lindsay technical books.*
                Last edited by PTSideshow; 10-15-2013, 09:35 AM.
                Been there, probably broke it, doing that!
                I am not a lawyer, and never played one on TV!
                All the usual and standard disclaimers apply. Do not try this at home, use only as directed, No warranties express or implied, for the intended use or the suggested uses, Wear safety glasses, closed course, professionals only


                • Smiths' Work

                  Smith's Work, a Hasluck's work handbook series
                  Paul N Hasluck
                  Originally published Cassell & Co
                  original copyright© 1899
                  Reprinted by Lindsay Publications
                  copyright ©2005
                  ISBN 1-55918-339-X
                  Trade paperback, 156 pgs B&W illustrations and line drawings

                  This is another one in the excellent series of “work” books that he did at the turn of the century. Covering a lot of the metal working arts when the field was expanding and the need for trained newcomers was great.

                  It is sort of encyclopedia, book for the tools and equipment of smiths work, along with a couple of interesting sections on working wrought iron and the grain pattern directions for different items. Something that modern steels cause less concern today.
                  1. Forges and Appliances: Some very nice drawings of a number of different style of forges with the air supply devices, anvils and other items that a smith would find use for. All have a very good description of there uses.
                  2. Hand Tools: All the common hand tools and some uncommon ones today, all with nice clear line drawings and illustrations. That aid in making the assorted tools, whether it is tongs in all their shapes and sizes. Hammers, swags, fullers both hand and anvil, to cold and hot cutters.
                  3. Drawing Down and Upsetting: is covered with clear drawings.
                  4. Welding and Punching: is given a brief description, with the emphasis on the two most important items. Correct heat and cleanliness of the material and fire to do the joining.
                  5. Conditions of Work; Principles of Formation: The first part is the types of smithy shops that are worked in a one man shop, a two man shop(smith and helper/striker) and a two man shop with a power hammer now, would have been a steam hammer. The second part is the use of the fibrous nature of wrought for the design of crank shafts, tie rods, eyes and lifting hooks.
                  6. Bending and Ring Making
                  7. Miscellaneous Examples of Forged work
                  8. Cranks, Model Work, and Die Forging: Mostly describing the types of tie rods, levers, bolts and cranks that are used on steam engines.
                  9. Home-made Portable Forges: In the round style or rectangular pan styles along with a bellows type of continuous blower style. Given the interest in home shop made forges for solid fuels. These will give one the basics that you can design a very good functioning forge for your use and style.
                  10. Manipulating Steel at the Forge: Covers the differences between steel and wrought iron, in there characteristics on material and there workings and forgings along with the drawbacks and benefits of each.

                  This is a great primer for those with either a passing interest in the craft or for those that want to expand their knowledge base or practical and practicing smithing.

                  It is available at nation builders books or Lindsay books on line.*
                  Last edited by PTSideshow; 09-27-2013, 09:16 AM.
                  Been there, probably broke it, doing that!
                  I am not a lawyer, and never played one on TV!
                  All the usual and standard disclaimers apply. Do not try this at home, use only as directed, No warranties express or implied, for the intended use or the suggested uses, Wear safety glasses, closed course, professionals only


                  • Metalworking Trades in Early America, Henry J Kauffman

                    Metalworking Trades in Early America
                    Henry J Kauffman
                    Copyright ©1995
                    Astragal Press
                    ISBN 1-879335-58-1
                    Trade paperback, 166pages
                    originally copyright ©1966
                    Charles E Tuttle Co.
                    LCCCN 94-74156
                    Books on antique tools and more at affordable prices

                    This is one of many survey's of early American trades, tools and practices that Mr. Kauffman has written on a wide variety of metal smith subjects. Starting from the beginning short after the first ship of
                    settlers landed.

                    Filled with lots of illustrations of artifacts form the periods discussed for each trade along with photo copies of journals, day books from the people that where in the business. His network of researchers for being Pre computer days. Is amazing, along with his discussions of the over lap of the trades or the miss information about what the trades did. Whitesmithing is one example, today it generally is thought that it was a silversmith. From the advertising in the newspapers of the time it is clear that it was referring to polished/cleaned up iron and steel work. And he points this out with numerous examples.

                    The books opens with 3 chapters that set the ground work for the following chapters. The story of the original blast furnace in the country,is the first one. The story of the forge being added too it is the second. And the the third is about the improvements in the casting of iron. That moved our industrial revolution forward.

                    Of course the blacksmith was next on the scene, helping the others to follow. It is the longest chapter with 30 pages. Photo's of hardware and other things they made, with some discussions on what type of hardware was popular in what sections of the country at that time. (chapter 4)

                    Chapter 5 deals with the Whitesmith, from one advert this whitesmith made doctor's instruments, trusses, trepanning instruments, tooth drawers, locck making, handles for spinning wheels and spindles. Some combined this with scissor and small knife making etc.

                    Chapter 6 is the Farrier, at this time separate from blacksmith in most urban locations, in the more rural area's in some adverts he was listed as working for the local blacksmith as at this time the master smith was probably to busy to deal with taking care of the horses needs.

                    Chapter 7 is the Edge Toolmaker, which for a time before the mass production of tools by machines. Did a brisk business, making shipwright's,carpenters, and axe's, adze's and draw knives.

                    Chapter 8 is the Cutler, who for a time was making all the Household cutting and eating utensils. Along with swords and edged weapons, folding knifes, Scythe and Sickles, saws all kinds of mill grinders and sharpening or dressing of the same.

                    Chapter 9 is the Locksmith, who was busy till the mass produced cheap locks came on to the scene, although most seemed to also do other work in the metal working line.

                    Chapter 10 is the Gunsmith, who depending on his location may or may not of made everything that went into the guns that he produced. There is proof booth in the artifacts and adverts that they might have used more import Firing lock/trigger mechanisms for the cheap rifles, and purchased the barrels from smiths that were better at the barrel making/welding of the barrels.

                    Chapter 11 is the Nailer, there are three types of people that made nails, a blacksmith that made nails when there was a lull in business, as an adjunct income producer. The blacksmith that hired a man that did nothing but make nails if there was a demand for them. Usually turned out to be a lesser skilled smith, either in smithing or business skills. And then the Farmer/Nailer to help augment the meager farming income, that had a small forge, they would get the nail rod form merchants and return nails. The children of some would make great quantities of nail during the winter.

                    Chapter 12 is the Wheelwright, because of the iron tires on the wheels and some thing that is often attributed to a blacksmith. The fitting on the Conestoga and other wagons, was separate from the items that blacksmiths might have made in the rural and wild parts of the country. Since the number of the factories along the east side of the country, had people doing certain jobs on all of the wagons they produced, due to the demand.

                    Chapter 13, is the Tinsmith, this is another often misunderstood trade as at the time he was working in iron sheet and iron coated with tin. Not the tin can material that many thought, as that is a more recent product. Among all kinds of buckets, and measurers, kitchen devices, doughnut, cake and cookie cutters, weather vanes, tin nursing bottles, lanterns, candle scones, oil lamps to containers to hold and store food stuffs. And the infamous pie safes, and bed and foot warmers. Part of the trouble in sorting out what and when tin items were made is that the types, styles and designs varied little from the first to the recent ones. Add to the fact little if any was decorated, or singed and dated.

                    He finishers up with a very extensive index of the book. He doesn't include copper and brass in this survey since he has done a very exhaustive survey on those subjects.
                    Been there, probably broke it, doing that!
                    I am not a lawyer, and never played one on TV!
                    All the usual and standard disclaimers apply. Do not try this at home, use only as directed, No warranties express or implied, for the intended use or the suggested uses, Wear safety glasses, closed course, professionals only


                    • American Copper and Brass
                      Henry J Kauffman
                      Masthof Press
                      Original Copyright ©1968
                      Copyright ©1995
                      ISBN 1-8883294-22-3
                      LCN 95-76684
                      Hardcover, 288 pages
                      B&W photo's, drawings, illustrations,and photo copies of original documents
                      Books on antique tools and more at affordable prices

                      This is another of Mr. Kauffmans surveys of early metal trades. Dealing with the copper smith and brass founder. He covers everything from the first mines in the colonies. And what was the British laws dealing with the found ore and the smelting of it.

                      It was supposed to be shipped back home and then the sheet metals and goods bought from merchants in England. Needless to say that, that arrangement didn't work well.

                      Along with the growing mining, smelting and foundry business in this country. The turning point was the achievement of rolling the copper sheet sheathings for the ships. Most importantly, was the US Constitution.

                      Paul Revere was to achieve universal fame for this achievement, in the early nineteeth century. His involvement was of a short duration.

                      He then moves on to detail discussions of the Coppersmith, and Brass founder's each has a separate chapter, covering the business, work, and details of general items.

                      The 3rd section of the book deals with the products of the Coppersmith and Brass Founder's. They are divided into main categories, and than further sub-divided into the various types or uses. With the available information, and photo's or drawings of the items. This in some cases has proved difficult with somethings. As they have been scrapped, to make new items. Since all most all had offers to buy old used and damaged items.

                      For the Coppersmiths; Kettles were the main group. With all the possible varitions for the other trade groups that used them in their work. Kettles, cooking, brewing, dyers, fish, hatters, and other types.

                      Pots and pans, warming, sauce, stew, frying, and coffee pots.

                      Stills, since a lot of homes cooked their own.

                      Miscellaneous Objects, Sheathing, butter churns, stencils, mugs, ladles and skimmers, measures, lamp fillers, drip pans, funnels, basins, coal hods, pumps, piping, glue pots,Higley coppers(the first local copper coinage, in the colonies), Weathercocks and engraved plates.

                      The 4th section is on products of the Brass founder;

                      Andirons, bells, gun parts and cannon, molds for casting of pewter objects.

                      Miscellaneous objects of cast brass, furniture brasses, door knockers, skillets, tomahawks, lancets, jagging irons,buttons, scientific instruments, steelyards, balances, sundials, lighting devices, clocks, and door locks.

                      In the 5th section the business life, business and his dealing are discussed, since his papers as far as his business of Coppersmithing goes.

                      The last sections 6 and 7 are two documented lists of Coppersmiths and Brass founders.

                      The list includes, their name, residence and date or dates working at the trade.

                      He finishes up with a bibliography and a very detailed index. This book along with “The Art of Coppersmithing”, the current available by John Fuller Sr, The Astragal Press , ISBN#1-879335-37-9 My review is in this thread. Will give you a very well rounded idea about and the techniques of the coppersmith.
                      Been there, probably broke it, doing that!
                      I am not a lawyer, and never played one on TV!
                      All the usual and standard disclaimers apply. Do not try this at home, use only as directed, No warranties express or implied, for the intended use or the suggested uses, Wear safety glasses, closed course, professionals only


                      • Not sure if it's already been mentioned, but
                        The Procedure Handbook of Arc Welding from the James F. Lincoln Foundation has been invaluable to me in school and at work.


                        • That is a Book you will never be able to replaced. National Cylinder Gas also made Welder Generators back in the day. My Uncle had 1 he salvaged & got running out of Volcanite Ltd's "bone yard." It put out 600 amps max & had a Kaiser flathead 6 cyl. engine in it. I learned to weld on that machine. I figured I'd drop that bit of info on you since the NCG label just grabbed my eye!!! I even remember welding rods by Chemetron...they carried every rod you could think of back in the day & Uncle Lloyd had unused/unopened 50lb. kegs of 6010, 6011, 6013, 6024, 7018, 7014, etc...they have been used up long ago, but I remember those days like it was only yesterday...


                          • Bought this book @ Barnes & Noble in the Ala Moana Shopping Center on Oahu...